5è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Diagnosis and Suggested Treatment by Ségolène Girard

Restoration of a 19th c. lottery game by M.J & Cie.

5è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Diagnosis and Suggested Treatment by S. Girard

Seg is speaking !

And sorry for the delay – the end of my third year is full with the preparation of the two next years : those of my master’s thesis, and long-term internships. Hopefully, I will get the chance to study in England to follow the path of Brittany, and hopefully at Brittany’s future workshop that promises to be filled with any restorer’s dreams, thank to the amazing job she is doing !

Let’s now get into the real process of restoration of my horse racing game.
After a full report of the deterioration it suffers of, and having took many pictures to complete it, I began thinking about options on what would have to be done on the game.

Capture d’écran 2014-04-03 à 23.05.05

It sort of was a personal project I did on my own, so of course, there are things that after a year I know I would have done otherwise with experience. But I am glad I got the chance to work on that piece so soon, since it has been a challenge the all way long. Also, considering that with only a year +1 I am already reconsidering my choices, and designing new options if I had to deal with a piece like this again, I feel it is very promising, and that this “stepping back” will grow with each year gained in experience.

As a two years student in restoration and conservation of paper works, I envisaged quite advanced actions :

– The game will be dismantled, drawings made to build it back.

– All of the pieces will be treated separately, and first dusted.

– I would then unstick all of the black papers, in order to repair the tears and gaps, and gain in flatness. Also, this would allow me to flatten the cardboard lid, before sticking the papers back. The golden papers, too oxydised would be removed and replaced by new ones. I felt that their now green colour was not rendering back the cheerful aspect of what that of game fortune used to give. If it has only been for the colour, I might have let them, considering them as part of the story the game came trough, but anyway, they were too incomplete, brittle, and could not offer their former protection to the edges.

The lid needs to be flattened, and the paper cleansed

The golden edges are not gold anymore, and they are leaving the sharp edges vulnerable to wear and tear

– The cardboard lower part, covered with mould, will be removed and replaced with a non-acid cardboard used in restoration.

Mould on the lower part of the game, after dismounting it

– The base, made out of wood, will be decontaminated because of the insects before putting the papers back.

Insect holes on the wooden base

Did you know you can recognize the insect that lived there only by the shape of the holes it leaves behind him ?

– The metal parts will be treated against rust.

Rust on the plateau of the base (inside view)

– Lead painting will be stabilized to prevent it of more flaking.

Flaking paint on the hoop

These actions resume what I dealt with the same way that I would now do it.
The only part that caused me trouble at that time, and that I would have done differently if I had had the time and funds is the treatment of the felt on the plateau. I decided to remove it because of its faded colour, and it was sometimes so thin you could see through it. Also, I wanted to access the metal parts to treat them against rust. It was a very hard choice to make ; choosing between which part to favor, and which to sacrifize. Anyway, I will probably have more time to study these types of problems in the future when I will be my own master on board !

Up next: 6è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Conservation (Part I)

Previous: 4è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part II: Lottery Games)


4è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part II: Lottery Games) by Ségolène Girard

Restoration of a 19th c. lottery game by M.J & Cie.

4è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part II: Lottery Games) by Ségolène Girard

Seg is speaking !

Games of Chance through the centuries

Author’s note : I try my best to make those articles a good reflect of my dossier which was two hundred pages long, when it should have been ten, so I guess I am trying this time to synthesize my work, but it is really hard to be short on such enthralling subjects ! I will do what I can to adapt it to an internet article purpose, meaning to keep the technical aspects, as well as not boring you stiff. So if I do too much, or too little, do not hesitate to let me know !

Horse in Motion, Eadweard Muybridge, ca. 1886 Photography collection, Harry Ransom Center.

Horse in Motion, Eadweard Muybridge, ca. 1886
Photography collection, Harry Ransom Center.

The 15th march 1999, the law that has been forbidding dice games for 611 years is abolished. It was a decision of Richard III in 1380 because he thought his archers played to much, games such as the backgammon, and he feared that it would harm the country’s safety.
But games of chance are much older, indeed archeologists found some sort of pins dating back to 6000 B.C.

Hendrick Ter Brugghen, Card players

Hendrick Ter Brugghen, Card players, 1623, oil painting on canvas

If we go back to Middle Age, we know that game was considered as a sin, as the devil would be interfering into the results and speaking through them. It originated simply in the fact that game was accessible to rich people, and because it lead them to laziness and cupidity church encouraged the crowds to believe that there was some mysterious scheme interfering into games, and whoever would play would not gain his place in paradise. It worked. People kept working.
Only a century ago, games were seen as some sort of sordid madness. It all changed in the fifties in the beginning of the Vegas period where stars such as Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy David Jr, and Peter Lawford would bring back together games and the idea of social success, which was the let-motive of the time.

James Gillray, Lady Godina's Rout or Peeping-Tom spying out Pope-Joan, 1796

James Gillray, Lady Godina’s Rout or Peeping-Tom spying out Pope-Joan, 1796, lithography

But let’s go only a half-century back in time, in the beginning of the 19th century. Game had finally and little by little consumed the british society of the Regency, from which time period survive beautiful satyric drawings. Soon arrives the dandyism with Beau Brummel under King George reign, clothes differences are abolished among social classes, make-believe that everyone can access to the chic style and can look incognito in a crowd. Rich among poors, poors among rich people. 1900 was almost here while someone had the good idea to bring back races into fashion. Public meeting par excellence, it allows people to show up. Seeing and being seen in public places is in good taste.

My Fair Lady, The movie race scene

My Fair Lady, the movie race scene

Doesn’t it ring a bell ? Yes games for everyone in Antic Rome. Horse races indeed did exist since 776 B.C. as they were on the Olympic Games program. The conductores, were our modern jockeys driving sulkys. The rules that are still followed nowadays were written by the British who started to set horse races during the Middle Age, and everyone, no matter their status, could enjoy them.

It quickly became popular in France as well. To see in what proportion, I invite you to read the history of horse races in France on France Galop the official website of the french racetracks. (- in English)

Horse Races or the Gambling Fever, with special case of the so-called French Horse Racing Game

Facing that sudden taste for horse races you can only imagine how the toy industry quickly jumped on the subject. It was already everywhere on the newspapers, it would be soon developed on a wide range of toys, although the French Racing Game will be destined  to a forewarned public as it will conquer the cafés, another place where anyone can turn posh or bawdy or at least make-believe. On the other hand, the resurgence of gambling on horse races will be so feverish – it went crazy in France by popping at once, while England was more tolerant about it since it has existed for a while already – that it will be forbidden. One more reason for our manufacturers to generalize the subject.


Wager on the sly, lotteries in the cafes. If the bourgeoisie now can mix up with aristocracy, races are still too expensive for the working class, that usually have no spare time to go to the horse-tracks, moreover far from the factories neighborhood. The Horse Racing Game kills too birds with one stone, it adds a little extra to the pot, and allows for a moment, at the end of a hard day, sipping the hooch, to dream about the races. Making easy money and strutting under a high hat on the green fresh lawn, that’s the height of fancy.

I am embellishing the story, but that is more or less by that time that casino games were created. If hazardous games have always been so shamefully valued, it is for the excitement caused by the unpredictability. Waiting, for a ace in the hole, Waiting, for the marble to stumble back and forth and then stop, Waiting, arouses the sentiment of desire.

Furthermore, the hazard erases any social differences, disability, or age among the players for it has no will of its own, as was thought during the Middle Age. Let’s not forget that by the beginning of the 20th century, being illiterate was quite common knowledge, until the law Ferry in 1882 mandating school for everyone at least until 13 years old.

One might want to say that there is always a way to calculate an approximate result depending on how you throw the object, on what side, with which speed, etc. but it will still remain unknown at the moment that is thrown the classic “place your bets”.

A horse of my own Horse Riding Game by M.J & Co

A horse of my own Horse Riding Game by M.J & Co

Why restoring this game ?

This horse game is a testimony of its time, socially, and culturally speaking. It is on one side the evolution of the gambling game which has never been seen so sophisticated before, and pulled the trigger to the creating process of all the casino lotteries and flippers that we know today. On the other side, it is the evolution of the morals concerning gambling, but also the will of cancelling the social gaps.

One of the most famous version of the evolution of the game, is called the Sigma Derby. It is a mechanical and electrified Horse Riding Game dating back from the fifties. It  represents the horse-track faithfully, about 7 feets long, and oval, with many details. It is made out of plastic. 1 to 10 players put their bet into the machine repository, wagering on the winning combination of 5 horses. At least 2 winning horses do the gain. I would be happy to know how the Horse Riding Game cross the Atlantic Ocean !

On the 9th june 2007 the first Sigma Derby Handicap was held by BigEmpire.com in order to determine the best Sigma Derby player in the world before a crowd of many spectators at the New Frontier Hotel and Casino. Bob Black of Minneapolis, MN, won the championship after he found the right combination on the last race of the tournament.

After the New Frontier Hotel and Casino Shutting, the last Sigma Derby were preserved for one at the Great MGM in Las Vegas, two at the MontBleu Casino/Resort à Stateline, NV, one other is at the Royal River Casino & Hotel at Flandreau, SD, and the last one on the 2nd floor of the D Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas.

You can see that this game was so appreciated that it even got to be arranged following the envy and fashions of casino regulars. Only the Sigma Derby of the MGM is sometimes working for nostalgics of that time when the Sigma Derby held such a great place in casinos. It is not the most exciting game in terms of techniques, but people that were interviewed about their souvenirs concerning that game, recalled that it is with no doubt the one that had the greatest success with the poker table, relegating flippers and slots in the background. There was always a little crowd around the Sigma Derby, looking completely astonished at the horses yomp slowly on the tracks, while holding their breath.

Here are a few pictures and a vidéo (I know you are going to smile blissfully while watching it because I just did so myself)


Capture d’écran 2013-04-02 à 12.54.29

And even one with camels !

Horse racing games such as this one by M.J & Co, which was the first manufacturer, can be found if you are lucky at flea markets or bric-à-brac shops. Although they are not all in such a good state, and usually they are of an unknown brand.


My version of the Horse Racing Game by M.J & Cie (detail)

After getting these informations, which I hope, you found interesting, you can only agree with me that it is necessary to reestablish the visual aspects of the Horse Riding Game, and put it back into working order, even if its authenticity suggests that it must not be used in the future unless in rare occasions.


Up next: 5è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Diagnosis and Suggested Treatment

Previous: 3è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part I: The toy industry)

3è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part I: The toy industry) by Ségolène Girard

Restoration of a 19th c. lottery game by M.J & Cie.

3è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part I: The toy industry) by Ségolène Girard

Seg is speaking !

First toys, and development through the centuries


Ox with casters, Sumer, Mesopotamy, 3rd millenium BC

Toys have always played a great role in the education of rich children as they were designed to prepare them to their future role in society, and this since antiquity with dolls, small horses, marbles, etc.

Children were asked from a very young age to act just like adults. Considering averages, girls would marry between 16 and 19, and young boys got in apprenticeship at 16, there was then no much time for droning, even in high society.

It is only during the 18th century in Europe, with the publishing of Émile or the Éducation by french philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that people started to reconsider children status.

Chardin, House of Cards (88x66), National Gallery, London

Chardin, House of Cards, oil on canvas, (88×66), National Gallery, London

From that time on, games were seen as a way to get amusement while learning, and seemed to proved that they formed better workers. But because of prices, and the time that it takes to change the ways, it took more time to change the attitude towards children in the countryside.

By the 19th century it has reached quite every social classes, and the demand, with the industrial revolution in 1870 helping, contributed to the explosion of the production. Toy factories not only stretched their imagination to satisfy the customers, but also played with each other in an infernal competition at mondial scale. Incalculable patents were registered, and at World War I dawn, France, by its refinement and originality, and Germany with a cheap and diversified production, distinguished themselves as the best nations in the toy industry.

Timoléon Lobrichon (1831-1914), Children asleep (I was for long, and for obvious reasons pretty sure it was untitled "Battlefield" !, 73 x 118.5 cm

Timoléon Lobrichon (1831-1914), Children asleep (I was for long, and for obvious reasons, pretty sure it was untitled “Battlefield” !), Oil on canvas, (73 x 118.5 cm)

War was at their doors, but french and german factories did not wait for it to enter to start one of their own, involving spies and bribes. Toys being a way to teach children and to build the future adults, they became the perfect tool to pass messages just as printing shops were doing with posters, (that by the way also helped with the selling of toys as catalogues were printed, and especially at christmas) and took the shape of patriotic symbols. In an article of La revue des deux mondes from the 15th of may 1915, it can be read “Jouets français contre jouets allemands” (French toys against german toys).

Jean Geoffroy "Geo"(1853-1924), Le 14 juillet des petits écoliers Huile sur toile, (46 x 61 cm)

Jean Geoffroy “Geo”(1853-1924), Schoolchildren celebrating the 14th of July,
Oil on canvas, (46 x 61 cm)

However, even with industrialization, not many factories were equipped with machines.

The assembly line, in Chaplin's satyric movie "Modern Times"

The assembly line, in Chaplin’s satyrical movie “Modern Times”

They usually run with the help of assembly lines, and sometimes, the pieces are dropped in the morning into households where all the family work together as a team, assembling, gluing, painting, wrapping little toys that are then sent back to toy shops ; workers are payed 5 francs a day.

The toy industry is settled in the neighborhood of Le Marais in the very center of Paris. The factory manager is at the same time inventor, designer, and sometimes worker. Due to a bad organization, and willing to make the most beautiful toys with little money, and a difficulty to abandon craft for a total industrialization, the french toys start lacking in quality. The only things that saves the french toys is that they at least keep that amazing creativity even though they lost their beautiful craftsmanship by the beginning of the 20th century.  Still, french toys factories hold in 1855, 30 stands over 77 exhibitors at the Universal Exhibition.

Inspiration is as well taken from imagination that from everyday life. Every event is subject to a creation. Some news are published, and hop, the showman is already down the street selling that little toy that will fix a piece of history in every child’s memory. A tiny frog (frenchies here we come) perforating Panama’s Isthmus, Chicago’s game, or the Triple-Alliance quizz symbolized by a nutcracker.

Saussine’s famous toys are the testimony of these progress and changing times. Here are two exemples of Saussine’s games which theme had been adapted to racing games made by M.J & Cie – just like our French Horse Racing Game – to suit the exciting current events.

Capture d’écran 2013-04-27 à 12.40.58

Top of the game by Saussine “Le Concours d’Aviation” (The Aviation Contest)

Racing game by M.J & Cie (details)

Racing game by M.J & Cie (details)

Top of the game "Course d'Automobiles" (Automobiles Race) by french toy factory Saussine

Top of the game “Course d’Automobiles” (Automobiles Race) by french toy factory Saussine

A Racing Game by M.J & Cie (details)

A Racing Game by M.J & Cie (details)

Our game fits into this time with numerous details, such as a patriotic and victorious french flag anouncing the end of the battle/ride, the use of lead that was the component for bullets during WWI, and of course the major theme that inspired the piece ; race meetings…but this is for next time !

A Horse Riding Game reproduction with a french flag

Up next: 4è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A bit of History (Part 2: Lottery Games)

Previous: 2è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Condition report


2è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Condition report by Ségolène Girard

Restoration of a 19th c. lottery game by M.J & Cie.

2è Partie. A French Horse Racing Game – Condition report by Ségolène Girard

Seg is speaking !

It has already been a year since the day I introduced this lottery game to my teacher. I have to say it was a pretty exciting day, since I was about to know if I was allowed to practice on such a demanding piece as a second year student. I guess I had light in my eyes when I showed it in class since she accepted.

It always starts with a full report of everything you know and can notice about the object ; its provenance, its history, then the detail of every single thing you can see, even insects hole have their importance, and give you precious pieces of information. Everything must be written with precise localization of the clues. Taking as many pictures as you can is equally important; it helps one follow the evolution of the piece, and prevents from transforming the object in a way that wouldn’t respect its original state.

Staving of the cardboard top

Distorted cardboard top

The game was salvaged by a second-hand goods dealer from a collector’s attic, which had endured water damage. As a result it was covered with mold, the cardboard was caved in and had rings, pieces of metal were rusted, and

the decorating papers were peeling off, and lack of maintenance caused them to tear.

The wood presented insects holes, and the painting on metal and paper was dangerously flaky.

It was observed that between the purchase of the game just after it was saved from the flood, mould percentage had increased of about 70% in a month.

Wooden and carboards bases covered with mould

Wooden and cardboards bases covered with mould


Oxidized gold edging papers

Also, time did its own work. The bright green of the felt faded away due to light exposure, the gold ribbons were oxidized, and it was worned out by the numerous hands that had touched it. Just as well, the horses were broken in several places, a head, a rider torso, and horse tail are missing.

Made in the 1900s by manufacturers M.J & Cie (M.J & Co), whose history stays unfortunately unknown to me after numerous unsuccessful researches ; this game is known in french as “Jeu de Course” literally “Racing Game”, but very popular in the United Kingdom, it was mostly famous under the name of “French horse riding game”.

Capture d’écran 2013-04-25 à 19.32.24

A French Horse Riding game model very close to the one I own, in good state

Although Horse Riding games from this period of time are always on the model of mine, few differences can be noticed from one game to another. The base is in wood while the top is in cardboard. The structure is covered in black papers with golden edges, sometimes the paper is marbled with dark colors.

A Horse Riding game with three hoops

A French Horse Riding game with three hoops

The horses are in lead while the hoops are in tinplate. There can be two, or sometimes three hoops, painted with red lead paint, the horses are painted with realistic colors and merry tints for the jockeys. I only saw games with a total of 8 horses which are numbered in white. The plateau is covered with a bright green felt which evokes the fresh lawn of the public enclosure.

Capture d’écran 2013-04-27 à 11.06.46

Modern reproduction of a French Horse Riding game with flag

A french flag announces the end of the race, though it is missing on my game. A plaque announcing the manufacturer shines on the front of the base, on which is the trigger to start the mechanism up.

My version of the game measures 5,3 inches in height, and is 10,5 inches wide and in length since it is a perfectly square base. Some games are bigger than others, depending on the number of hoops.

schéma dimensions

Here are a few illustrations I did for my dossier, let me know if you want any translation of the keys.

schéma vue de haut

Illustration showing the game from the top and the different pieces composing the plateau

Captions translation (letters & numbers are pictured down below) :
– manette = lever
– plateau central = central plateau (fixed) (A)
– coupelle = cup (1)
– pilastres = lead pilaster
– rebord en bois, recouvert de papier doré = wooden structure, covered with golden papers
– plateau = large metallic plateau covered with green felt (billard-like), fixed in the wooden structure (C)
– anneau rouge = red ring (fixed) (B)
– emplacement du drapeau = flag spot
– espace chevaux rotatif 1 = space, about 6 mm
– espace chevaux rotatif 2 = space, about 6 mm

schéma mécanique

Cross-section of the mechanism

Captions :

The large metallic plateau (C) covered with green felt (billard-like), is fixed in the wooden structure. The wooden structure is covered with golden papers on the edges, and black paper on the main part. It encloses the box at the bottom and hides the mechanism by holding a cardboard square.

Pilasters are screwed three by three from the angles of the larger structure to its center, four on (C), four on (A) and four on (B). Pilasters hold the red ring (B) as such : a metallic (lace-like) piece pierced in three parts goes on three pilasters at a time, and is secured by a small spear that goes through tiny holes on top of the pilasters.

Two horses roundabouts (7) run between (A) and (B), and the other (9) between (B) and (C). They are actionned by a simple mechanism : when you pull out the outside lever, a spring is actionned and drags a gear down the main pole. It comes back when you let go of the lever and makes the mechanism follow. Flower-shaped gears and washers are placed in-between the base of (7) and (9).

The cup to place bets (1) is pierced and maintains with nut (2) and bolt (3) the main pole (6) that goes through the central fixed plateau (A). It is levelled by a decorative “cone” (5) and washer (4).

Up next: 3e partie. A French Horse Racing Game – A Bit of History (Part I)